- The establishment of Vietnamese communist party of Saigonin 1930
1.1. The 1 st cell of Saigon Vietnamese communist party:
– Comrade Nguyen Van Loi, the 1 st general secretary the Saigon Vietnamese communist party.
– Comrade Phan Thao, the general secretary of the cell of tailor
– Comrade Nguyen Trac, the general secretary of the cell of Charner factory
1.2. “Co Do” (Red flag) newspaper, the means of the Southern Vietnamese communist party.
1.3. The demonstration of peasants of Hoc Mon, Binh Chanh, Ben Luc
1.4. Active leaders and people of Vietnamese communist party
1.1.1. Comrade Tran Phu (1904 – 1931):
Born on May 1 st 1904
Homeland: Tung Anh, Duc Tho, Ha Tinh province
In 1922, passed College examination in Hue and was appointed to teach in Cao Xuan Duc school in Vinh.
In 1925, participated in Phuc Vietnamese association.
In July 1926, was appointed to meet the leaders of Vietnam Revolution Youth in China to unify the Thanh nien association and Tan Viet one.
In Octorber 1930, was appointed as the general secretary of the Indochinese communist party.
In March 1931, being the main responsible person for the 2 nd Central congress of the Vietnamese communist party.
On April 19 th 1931, was arrested in Saigon because of Ngo Duc Tri’s betrayal
In August 1931, was serious sick, the French colonial government took him to Cho Quan hospital and died on September 6 th 1931.
1.1.1. Ly Tu Trong (1914 – 1931):
Homeland: Thach Minh, Thach Ha, Ha Tinh province but his family migrated to Thailand.
In 1926, the Vietnam Young association in China took him from Thailand to Caton. In China, Nguyen Ai Quoc named him Ly Tu Trong. In there he attended Chinese language college then worked for the Vietnam Young association in Caton.
In autumn of 1929, he was appointed to work for An nam Central communist organization (Trung Uong An Nam Cong San dang) with the role of taking and receiving revolution documents and interpreting for Central comrades.
In the meeting celebrating Yen Bai insurrection on February 8 th 1931, he shoot Legrand secret police dead to protect Comrade Phan Boi making speech so he was arrested.
On November 21 nd 1931, he was sentenced by the French colonial government.
- The democratic movement (1936 – 1939)
Having the lead of the Vietnamese communist party of the city, workers, peasant’s movements struggling for civil and democratic right developed strongly in 1936, 1937.
For real situation, the Central of Indochinese communist party organized the 4 th congress in November 1939. The congress defined the Indochinese people’s duty which was establishing the Indochinese people front resisting the colonialism.
1.5.1. Spinning wheel: comrade Thai Ngoc Dung used for earning the Vietnamese communist party’s fund.
1.5.2. L’avant Garde newspaper, Le Peuple newspaper, the propaganda organization, the political struggle means of the Vietnamese communist party.
- The Southern insurrection 1940:
In late of 22 nd and early of 23 rd November 1940, the Southern insurrection took place at 13 provinces of 21 Southern provinces such as Gia Dinh, Cho Lon, Tan An, Tay Ninh, Bien Hoa, Thu Dau Mot… The insurrection was fail because its scheme was revealed.
In Gia Dinh, at 0 o’clock, November 23 rd 1940, guerillas attacked in unison the enemy’s posts at Lang Cha Ca, Vuon Tieu, Vinh Loc interjection, Phu Lam. In Hoc Mon district, the people cut telephone line, interrupted roads, demolished bridges forward to Saigon…
In Cholon, guerillas gathered in Duc Hoa, Trung Quan, Can Giuoc, Can Duoc, the insurrection took place decisively in Duc Hoa, Trung Quan. At some hamlets, the puppet regime’s government has been taken over.
3.1. Forge: used for forging weapons supplying for insurrection.
- The August revolution in Saigon:
In 1945, the advantageous objective context: the Japanese took over French government on March 9 th 1945. The Germany fascist surrendered to the allied countries. The Pioneer Young organizations were established.
On August 15 th 1945, Japanese fascist declared surrender without condition the Southern Resistance committee was erected. The VietMinh appeared before the public for the first time at Nguyen Van Hoa cinema, the Red flag fluttered in the wind at Pham Ngoc Thach’s house. On August 24 th, the people took factories over. At Kham Sai palace (now is Ho Chi Minh city museum), the 1 st place in Saigon, the Puppet regime’s flag was lowered and the Revolution flag was hung.
In early of August 25 th 1945, about one million people of Saigon – Cho Lon and environ provinces brought bamboo spears marched with stamping noises to Saigon center participated in victory march.
4.1.The Pioneer Young organization:
Taking advantage of the Japanese’s policy which gathered the young to against the allied countries, doctor Pham Ngoc Thach and patriotic others erected the Pioneer Young organization led by Vietnamese communist party on June 1st 1945.
The Pioneer Young organization’s uniform was blue shorts, #000000 shirt, rubber sandal, large brim hat. Members were equipped bamboo spears, daggers, rope. Its slogan was “Thanh nien”(The Young) “Tien”(Advance). Its propaganda organization was Tien daily newspaper. Its office was on No 14 Charner street (now is Nguyen Hue street).
The Pioneer Young organization’s activities were specialized by boards such as the Propaganda board, the Social Activity one, the Voice radio sector, the Military training board, the newspaper editor board… members were workers, intellectuals, students, pupils.
In the early of August 1945, the Pioneer Young organization had been become the unified front of classes, religions. Its activities developed in the most of electricity, water factories, post office…
On August 16 th 1945, the Pioneer Young organization declared joining to VietMinh front and were willing to participate in insurrections.
The Pioneer Young organization of Saigon, Cho Lon, Gia Dinh hold oath ceremony at Ong Thuong garden (now is Tao Dan park).
The 1 st oath ceremony took place on July 15 th 1945 with 20,000 persons. The Pioneer Young organization’s leaders called “The young should recognize: the Young must be willing to dedicate their lives to liberate the country “
The 2nd oath ceremony took place on August 18th 1945, the young sang the song “Thanh nien hanh khuc” (the Young march).
4.2.Saigon people listened to Ho Chi Minh president’s independence declaration on September 2 nd 1945
The August revolution was victory. On September 2 nd 1945, thousands of people from many provinces gathered at Norodom square to listened to Ho Chi Minh president’s independence declaration casting from Ha Noi capital. At the meeting, the president of the Southern Provisional Administration Committee stepped to grand stand calling the people unifying into Ho Chi Minh government.
5. Saigon in the beginning days of the resistance:
Viet Nam was independent for 20 days, the French troops helped by the British troops reinvaded Saigon on September 22 nd 1945. A day later, the Southern Resistance Administration Committee was established, led by the president Tran Van Giau. The Committee launched resistance order on 23 rd September 1945.
5.1.The flag embroidered letters “The Hero Nation” Ho Chi Minh president presented the Southern people:
In June 1946, Ho Chi Minh president commended the Southern people “For the Southern people dedicated their lives to protect the country the people of the whole nation had to gratitude to them”
6. Four fronts encircling enemy ports in Saigon:
Saigon revolution force divided into four fronts: the North front led by comrade Nguyen Van Tu, the East one led by lawyer Thai Van Lung, the West led by comrade Nguyen Luu, the Southern led by Nguyen Van Tran.
Besides armed force, political struggle movements such as the Pupil movements of Petrus Ky, Gia Long, Le Ba Cang schools, took place universally, Saigon people struggle protested two American war ships anchoring Saigon port on March 19 th 1950.
7. Saigon – Cho Lon people participated in the pupil movement in the front of Tran Van Huu palace.
On January 9 th 1950, over 2000 pupils of Gia Long, Petrus Ky, Nguyen Van Khue, Le Ba Cang schools demonstrated to demand the colonial government to release arrested pupils. The colonial government suppressed cruelly: 30 pupils wounded, 150 pupils were arrested, Tran Van On pupil was wounded and died at Cho Ray hospital. Tran Van On’s funeral on January 12 th 1950 became the large demonstration attracting many classes such as workers, traders, journalists
- The munitions factory
The Southern munitions workshop where manufactured and repaired weapons was erected in the anti – French resistance.
Depending on real situation, the size and the form of workshop were different. They are workshop nearby enemy post, underground workshop, workshop operating by water power, workshop in civil zone, on boats, on back.
9. Dien Bien Phu victory: (May 7 th 1945)
Saigon – Cho Lon headed movements struggling for peace. In February 1954, workers of factories ASAM, EIFFEL, AUTODALL, FACI, CARIC struck. In April, workers of shoes shop, Cho Quan electricity factory demanded to improve working condition. On May 1st 1954, people hold the meeting supporting Dien Bien Phu victory in the front of the Puppet regime’s the city prefecture.