* Weddings of the Viet ethnic group in the South Vietnam
Weddings are one of the most important nuptial ceremonies of one’s life. According to the old tradition, wedding of Vietnamese includes 6 main rites:
- “Napthai” ceremony: The man’s family asked the match-maker to bring wine to the girl’s family express that they choose her.
- “Vandanh” (pre-betrolthal) ceremony: Where names and ages of prospective bride and groom are exchanged.
- “Napcat” ceremony: Informing the girl’s family of good lots, advantageous couple to marriage.
- “Napte” (engagement) ceremony: Carrying wedding offerings to the girl’s house.
- “Thinhky” ceremony: Suggesting to fix the nuptial time.
- “Thannghinh” (wedding) ceremony: Bride’s procession to the groom’s house.
Today’s wedding includes meeting the girl’s family, engagement ceremony and wedding ceremony.
* Objects: Wedding offerings of the Viet ethnic group
– A pair of candles (made from beeswax)
– Wedding coins (replica)
– Betel, areca – tray
– Tea, wine – casket
– Fruit – casket
– Cake – casket
– Betel, Wine – tray
* Chinese weddings in South Vietnam
There are many similarities between nuptial ceremonies of the Hoa and the Viet, both of them based on the ritual book of Chu Hy, a scholar of Confucianism the Song dynasty. The traditional ceremonies of the Hoa include 6 main rites: bringing wine to the girl’s home; pre-betrolthal; informing the girl’s family of good lots; engagement ceremony; suggesting to fix the nuptial time; bride’s procession to the groom’s house. As the Viet, today, the major rites of the Hoa includes meeting the girl’s family, engagement ceremony and wedding ceremony. Wedding offerings are often roast pork, chicken, duck, fruit, cakes …
* Khmer weddings in the South Vietnam
Khmer weddings take place following Khmer’s calendar. The weddings include three main rites:
- Sdaydoldong (Talking) ceremony: Match-maker, parents and some cousins bring offerings (cakes, fruitage, betel, areca – everything has to be in pairs) to the girl’s house.
- Longmaha (Engagement) ceremony: The neighbours are notified that the families of couple are in alliance. The offerings include: 4 banana hands, 4 wine bottles, 4 tea packets, 4 betel packs, 2 legs of pig, 2 chickens, 2 ducks and some money. In this ceremony, an auspicious day for the wedding is also chosen. The girl is considered a woman.
- Thngayboscolte (Wedding) ceremony: It is officiated by the Achar Po Lia. The main rites include the groom’s procession to the bride’s house, offering alms to buddhist monk, hair-cutting, scattering area flowers, wrist-tying, and entering the bride’s room. Wedding rites take place with traditional dances.
* Cham Islam weddings in the South
The wedding ceremonies of the Cham Islam in the South consist of 4 main rites:
- NaoKha Da: A matchmaker is asked to discuss with the young woman’s family about the wedding money and the auspicious date for the wedding.
- ClokPa Noith (Engagement ceremony): Boy’s family brings betel and areca, cloth, earrings, necklace to the girl’s home, then unveils the wedding money.
- ChonKhal Ao (Presenting gift): Before the wedding, the groom’s family presents the bride with wedding gifts .
- Pa Khah (Wedding ceremony): An elder representing the bride’s family declares to marry the girl to the boy with a sum of wedding money. the groom replies, agreeing to marry her coherently. it is unlucky if he answers unfluently. after this, everyone reads from the koran and congratulates the couple.
- Bringing wedding offerings to welcome the bride in Sai Gon, middle 20th century
2. The bride and groom at the ancestors altar
3. A wedding in Tien Giang province in 1937 (Collection of Truong Ngoc Tuong)
4. Wedding costumes in 1937 (photo: Bui Quang Chieu’s family)
5. Wedding of Mr. Truyen Van Xuan and Mrs Lam Thi My Duyen in Tien Giang, in 1960
6. Wedding of hero of armed force Nguyen Van Troi and Mrs Phan Thi Quyen, in 1964
7. A Wedding between Viet bride and Hoa groom in Sai Gon, early 20th century
8. A wedding by boat (source: Museum of Viet Nam Ethnology)
9. A wedding in Ho Chi Minh City
10. Cham wedding
11. Hoa wedding
12. Khmer wedding
- Weddingheld in the war time in 1955
- Weddingheldin Cu Chi liberation zone in 1972.
* Collection of wedding cards:
- Informing day card.
- Wedding invitation of hero of armed force Nguyen Van Troi and Mrs Phan Thi Quyen, 1964.
- Wedding invitation of the Hoa in Cho Lon – Ho Chi Minh City.
- Wedding invitation of Mr. Truyen Van Xuan and Mrs Lam My Duyen, 1960.
- Wedding invitation of the Cham in Ho Chi Minh City.
* Marriage tie oration
* Receipt of engagement fee
* Collection of Marriage certificates.
Wedding costumes of the Khmer bride and groom
– Wedding costumes of the Viet bride and groom in the late 19th century (copy of Lien Huong tailor based on the collection Truong Ngoc Tuong)
* Collection of tools for betel chewing